Risk factors for cardiovascular events and bleeding complications following non-cardiac surgery or procedure in patients with drug eluting stent placement

Tiwari D, Jurkovitz CT, Zhang Z, Bowen J, Kolm P, Wygant G, Weintraub WS

Heart Asia 2014;6(1):69-75

PMID: 27326174


OBJECTIVES: Previous studies suggest an increased incidence of cardiovascular (CV) events after P2Y12 receptor blocker cessation. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of P2Y12 receptor blocker cessation and other risk factors on the risk of CV events and bleeding events after non-cardiac surgery/procedure in patients with drug-eluting stents (DES).

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.

SETTING: Single large healthcare system in the northeast of the USA.

PATIENTS: All adult patients who had a coronary drug eluting stent (DES) placed between 2002 and 2007 in our institution.

INTERVENTIONS: No randomised intervention. The principal exposure was cessation of P2Y12 receptor blocker.

METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all adult patients who had a coronary DES placed between 2002 and 2007 in our institution. We considered all non-cardiac procedures up to 1 year after DES placement. Generalised estimating equations were used to identify the independent risk factors. Multiple imputations were used to replace missing values.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcomes were CV events including death from any cause and bleeding, occurring within 30 days after the procedure.

RESULTS: From 2002 to 2007, 6397 patients had DES, 873 (13.6%) had at least one non-cardiac procedure. A total of 3.6% (33/927) of the admissions were complicated by at least one cardiovascular event and 6.9% (55/795) were complicated by bleeding. Urgent procedure (versus elective) was the only independent risk factor for CV events (OR=4.82, 95% CI 1.95 to 11.89). Older age, diabetes, urgent procedures, orthopaedic and vascular surgery compared to unclassified surgery were independent risk factors for bleeding.

CONCLUSIONS: Non-cardiac procedures are common within 1 year after DES placement. Urgent nature of procedure is a risk factor for CV events and bleeding complications. Older age, diabetes, type of surgery, are risk factors associated only with bleeding events.

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