Goldstein JN, Shinwari M, Kolm P, Elliott DJ, Weintraub WS, Hicks LS
Am J Manag Care 2019 06;25(6):e173-e178
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether a care transitions program, Bridges, differentially reduced rehospitalizations among patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) based on insurance status and zip code poverty level.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort.
METHODS: We examined data from a single health system in Delaware, collected as part of a care transitions program for patients who underwent PCI from 2012 to 2015 compared with an unmatched historical control cohort from 2010 to 2011. Socioeconomic status was assessed by insurance status and zip code-level poverty data. Patients were divided into tertiles based on the proportion of their zip code of residence living under 100% of the federal poverty level. Rehospitalization rates were analyzed by negative binomial regression and included interaction terms to examine differential effects of Bridges by insurance and poverty level.
RESULTS: There were 4638 patients representing 5710 hospitalizations: 3212 in the historical control and 2498 in the Bridges cohort. Among patients with Medicaid who received the Bridges intervention, those living in the wealthiest zip codes were 15.5% less likely to be rehospitalized than patients with Medicare and 9.4% less likely than patients with commercial insurance (P = .04). However, patients with Medicaid who lived in the poorest zip codes and those with dual Medicare/Medicaid status had higher rates of rehospitalization post intervention.
CONCLUSIONS: The Bridges intervention was associated with improved rehospitalization rates for Medicaid patients compared with those with Medicare or commercial insurance within Delaware’s wealthier communities. Care transitions programs may differentially affect Medicaid patients based on the wealth of the communities in which they reside.